從文物與藝術科技探索香港戰後歷史 | HONG KONG’S RISE FROM WWII THROUGH ICONIC ARTEFACTS AND ART TECH

由香港海事博物館主辦的「香江泛洋奇蹟:1945年以來我們的港口故事」特備展覽將透過25件具標誌性的展品,探索香港如何從二次世界大戰後奇蹟崛起,成為世界知名的海事樞紐。展覽結合藝術及科技,以及由屢獲殊榮的電影製作人麥曦茵執導的五部微電影。

Organised by the Hong Kong Maritime Museum, the special exhibition “Hong Kong’s Maritime Miracle: The Story of our City since 1945,” explores Hong Kong’s miraculous transformation from the ashes of World War II into a global maritime hub through 25 iconic exhibits. The exhibition leverages art and technology, and features a series of five newly produced short movies directed by award-winning filmmaker Heiward Mak.

Why it matters:
展覽帶來一系列代表香港人集體回憶的展品,包括「香港製造」產品,以及有關海員、天星小輪、船塢及貨櫃碼頭等的文物、私人收藏品及歷史照片,從中展示船運如何密切地連繫著我們過去、現在與未來的日常生活。精選展品包括天星小輪於二十世紀採用的舊式收費閘機;一幅描繪世界上最大船隻「海上巨人號」(及後改名為「亞勒維京號」)的油畫,這艘船隻曾鞏固了香港作為船務業中心的角色;以及一艘將於戶外展出的「大飛」(快艇)。

Collective memories of the community are told through exhibits such as ‘Made in Hong Kong’ products, artefacts, personal memorabilia and historical photography on seafarers, Star Ferry, dockyards, and container terminals. These examples illustrate the crucial role of shipping in our daily lives in the past, present and future. Highlights will include the display of a Star Ferry turnstile that had been used as a faregate in the 20th century; the oil painting of Seawise Giant (later renamed Jahre Viking), the world’s largest ship ever built that cemented the city’s role as the centre of ship management operations; and an outdoor display of the only remaining ‘Dai Fei’ (speedboat) in existence, captured by the Hong Kong Marine Police and used for training purposes until the end of 2020.

5 Highlights:
.第一章:浴火重生(1945–1948)

1945年是香港戰後迅速重生之年。在日佔時期 (1941年12月至1945年8月) ,香港的城市基建在多次轟炸及同盟國空襲後幾乎被完全炸毀,人口由戰前的1,640,000減少至戰後的600,000。儘管如此,在日本於1945年8月無條件投降後,香港迅速由戰火中重生。在1945年11月23日,香港在私營貿易方面正式重啟,而船運業則在短短10個月內回復運作。香港優先恢復了食物供應、船運設施及交通網絡,因此亦是東亞區內復甦得最快的城市。
.第二章:商貿重啟(1949–1970年)
在1940年代後期至1950年代,香港主要的船公司重建了船隊及海港設施。在1947年,香港最大的船塢,包括太古船塢及工程公司和香港黃埔船塢有限公司,共有14,484名員工,超過當時1/4的工業勞動人口。直至1950年,超過700,000中國內地移民湧入,香港的人口迅速增長。大量的商人、企業家、知識份子及勞動人士在香港定居,為城市帶來技能、資金及勞動力,以及重塑人生的熱情。
.第三章:高速成長期 (1960年代至1980年代)
香港的發展在1960年代再創高峰。當時的人口、資本投資及工業均急速增長,而海外亦對消費品有大量需求。出入口及船運受惠於低稅率、自由貿易及資金流動,以及寬鬆的勞工法例。在1960年至1970年間,出口流量由一千八百萬上升至二千八百萬公噸,而香港的國內生產總值由十三億美元上升至三十八億美元。透過在國際商貿展覽中出展,香港逐漸建立出品牌。
.第四章:貨櫃為王 (1972年至今)
第一艘艙格式全貨櫃船在1972年抵港,停泊在新建的葵涌貨櫃碼頭。憑著葵涌貨櫃港的效率及輕工業的產出量,香港成為亞洲領先的港口,並在1987年取代鹿特丹成為世界最繁忙的貨櫃港。直至1990年,共有七個貨櫃船泊位坐落於葵涌,由私營船運公司運作。當時,香港國際貨櫃碼頭開始投資於中國內地的貨櫃港。隨著香港將其製造業移至內地成本較低的地區,令其中深圳和鹽田發展迅速。香港的吞吐量於2011年達至高峰,共二千四百四十萬TEU。
.第五章: 遠景
香港是通往中國內地的重鎮。配合低稅率、法治,以及貨物、資金及人才的自由流動,香港是國際貿易及物流中心。可是,香港也面對著海事人才的短缺,疫情亦為全球的船員帶來困難。這些挑戰為船運業帶來壓力,並威脅全球供應鏈。

.Section 1: Regeneration (1945–48)
The year 1945 saw Hong Kong’s remarkable rise from a city in ruins to a city recovered in a matter of months. Under the Japanese Occupation (December 1941-August 1945), the city’s infrastructure was virtually destroyed after severe bombing and numerous air raids by the Allied Forces, and the population decreased from 1,640,000 pre-war to 600,000 post-war.
However, with the unconditional surrender of Japan in August 1945, Hong Kong rose from the ashes of War in record time. It was officially reopened for private trade by 23 November 1945, less than three months after the Japanese Occupation and five months before the resumption of the Civil Government on 1 May 1946. The shipping industry was back in operation in a mere ten months. With priority given to food supply, shipping facilities, and transportation networks, Hong Kong was the fastest to resume business among East Asian countries and cities.
.Section 2: Back in Business (1949–1970)
The major shipping companies in Hong Kong rebuilt their fleets and port facilities during the late 1940s and 1950s. In 1947, the largest shipyards in Hong Kong, including Taikoo Dockyard and Engineering Company and The Hong Kong and Whampoa Dock Company Limited, hired 14,484 employees in total, over a quarter of the labour force employed in industrial establishments at that time. By 1950, the population of Hong Kong had swelled with the influx of over 700,000 mainland Chinese immigrants. Businessmen, entrepreneurs, intellectuals and a large volume of manpower made their homes in Hong Kong, all bringing their own skills, capital and labour with them, along with a fervent desire to rebuild their lives.
.Section 3: The High Growth Years (1960–80s)
Hong Kong’s development hit a high in the 1960s with the combination of the growing population, capital investment, thriving industry and a strong overseas demand for consumer goods. Low taxes, free trade, free movement of capital and lax labour laws turbocharged the growth of exports and imports along with shipping. Export tonnage increased from 18 to 28 million tonnes between 1960 and 1970, while Hong Kong’s GDP increased from USD1.3 to 3.8 billion. The branding of Hong Kong was also established through its presence in international trade fairs.
.Section 4: The Container Changed Everything (1972-present)
The first fully cellular container ship called at Hong Kong’s new Kwai Chung Container Terminal in 1972. With the higher efficiency of Kwai Chung Container Port and the growing output of its light manufacturing industry, Hong Kong became a leading port in Asia, and overtook Rotterdam as the world’s busiest container port in 1987. By 1990, there were seven container berths at Kwai Chung, all operated by private shipping companies. Hong Kong International Terminals (HIT) began investing in container ports in mainland China. Shenzhen and Yantian, the two ports to the west and east of Hong Kong, expanded quickly, as Hong Kong’s manufacturing moved to lower cost locations over the border. Hong Kong’s throughput peaked in 2011 at 24.4 million teu.
.Section 5: The Future
Strategically located as a gateway to and from Mainland China, Hong Kong has long been a leading international trade and logistics hub with a low and simple tax regime, the rule of law, and a free flow of goods, capital, and people. However, Hong Kong faces challenges with insufficient experienced labor and maritime specialists. Covid pandemic also poses a difficulty to arrange ship crews worldwide. These challenges put increasing pressure on the shipping industry to maintain its reliability and threaten the globalized supply chains.

Background – Hong Kong Maritime Museum:
香港海事博物館於2005年在赤柱美利樓對外開放,並自2013年起遷至中環海濱核心區的八號碼頭。館內現時設有15個展廳,共展出近1200件藏品,每年吸引約13萬訪客參觀。另設活動場地、頂層咖啡廳和禮品店。太古海洋探知館是香港海事博物館的新設施,在2022年正式啟用。太古海洋探知館融匯歷史、藝術及科學,為公眾帶來獨一無二的體驗,讓其從中學習有關香港海事文化遺產和海洋生態的知識。

The Hong Kong Maritime Museum opened its door to the public at Murray House in Stanley in 2005 and relocated to Central Pier No. 8 in the heart of the Central Harbour Waterfront in 2013. Today the Museum displays over 1,200 objects in 15 galleries. The HKMM also houses various event spaces for rent, a rooftop café, and a gift shop. In 2022, the Swire Marine Discovery Centre opens at the museum, providing the community with the unique opportunity to learn about Hong Kong’s maritime heritage and marine ecology through a pioneering fusion of history, art, and science.

Final Tips:
五齣微電影由香港電影製作人麥曦茵執導,由年輕演員黃溢濠、郭爾君、歸綽嶢、林耀聲、戴妙珊及Mr. Jan(鄭家傑)主演。觀眾將從電影中一位20多歲香港年輕人的視角探索世代的愛情與家庭故事,追溯香港的海事發展,並發現日常生活中與海事世界的聯繫。

The five short movies is directed by Hong Kong-based filmmaker Heiward Mak, starring Yatho Wong, Alma Kwok, Nancy Kwai, Sing Lam, Miu Shan Tai and Mr. Jan as the leads. Through the eyes of the fictional Hongkonger in her twenties, the movies weave stories of love and family with the maritime developments in the city and highlight our everyday connections with the maritime world.

香江泛洋奇蹟:1945年以來我們的港口故事
Hong Kong’s Maritime Miracle: The Story of our City since 1945
Date:

2022.6.24 – 10.30
Venue:
香港中環8號碼頭,香港海事博物館,專題展覽及文化活動廳
Special Exhibitions and Events Gallery, Hong Kong Maritime Museum, Central Pier 8, Hong Kong

Courtesy to Hong Kong Maritime Museum

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