大衛·霍克尼:水池與藝術的自由 | David Hockney: A Liberation Through Pools and Art

「儘管我不介意別人這樣看我,我實際上是一個勞動者; 藝術家可以接納享樂主義,卻不能當一個享樂主義者。」— 大衛·霍克尼

“I was never much of a party boy. I didn’t mind being seen that way, but I am actually a worker. An artist can approve of hedonism, but he can’t be a hedonist himself.” - David Hockney

大衛·霍克尼是一位極具天賦的畫家,他一直深明勤勉、刻苦的重要性。由他早年於巴拉福特藝術學校,及後在倫敦皇家藝術學院的浸淫,年輕的霍克尼體會到成功的要訣就是不斷的鑽研達至精通。到十六歲之齡,霍克尼已能克制自己成為一個極為自律的學生,又或是跟隨自己對藝術由衷的熱情,幾乎每天都在素描班苦練十二小時。面對青春五光十色的誘惑,霍克尼只埋頭苦幹,醉心藝術。最終,多年的歷練讓霍克尼成為不可多得、為人讚嘆的著名畫家;更被視為對一九六零年代普普藝術運動舉足輕重的風雲人物,亦被譽為二十世紀最具影響力的英藉藝術家之一。

David Hockney was a gifted British painter that upheld diligence and believed in hard work. From his early days at the Bradford School of Art and later, the Royal College of Art, the young Hockney realised that the key to being successful is drill, master and repeat. At the age of 16, the artist was able to discipline himself or perhaps, simply flow with his passion for art, and stick to a nine-to-nine schedule at life drawing classes. Instead of falling into the temptations of partying and having fun, the artist could not help but work. The hours dedicated to painting paved the way of Hockney being a celebrated artist, influential to the pop art movement in the 1960s and was honoured one of Britain’s most influential artists of the 20th century.

「當我抵達聖伯納丁諾,映入眼簾的盡是充滿加州風情的游泳池、房子、陽光,那時我比到訪世界任何一個地方還要興奮……」

“As I flew over San Bernardino and looking down and saw the swimming pools and the houses and everything and the sun, I was more thrilled than I’ve ever been arriving at any other city…”

從皇家藝術學院畢業後,霍克尼穿梭歐、美兩洲旅遊,卻意外地啟發了他奠定個人畫風。在英國土生土長的霍克尼習慣了家鄉陰沈的天氣;相反地,美國加州的大晴天給人烙下深刻的印象,因此當地的房子普遍設有私人泳池,是英國鮮有的設計。霍克尼很快就被吸引 — 是那晴朗的天氣,在太陽底下自由暢泳的舒坦,於無事的下午慵懶戲水的愜意;更是看到陽光和池水的交錯,洛杉磯的生活,這些種種都編織著霍克尼藝術作品的標誌。

Upon graduating from the Royal College, Hockney made intermittent trips to Europe and America, which unexpectedly provided him with the inspiration to establish his personal painting style. Born and raised in Britain, Hockney was used to harsh weather conditions. Contrasting to that, Los Angeles was on the opposite end, making it common case for houses to have pools. Hockney was lured by the sunny weather, the liberating idea of swimming under the sun’s kiss, the leisure of swimming at private pools on sunny afternoons, interaction between the sun and the water, and the overall lifestyle at Los Angeles, which composited to the signature theme among Hockney’s works.

霍克尼初期的作品主要取材自身邊日常的人、事、物。例如他父親的肖像畫,以樹、街道、房屋為題的畫作,這些看似平凡的事物剛好反映了這位藝術家的故鄉和根源。那時候霍克尼好用油彩以創作抽象的作品,就風格而言,霍克尼早期的畫作大多有厚重的顏料重覆堆疊,是為油畫的特性之一。

Initial paintings of Hockney based heavily on the people and daily objects surrounding him. Portraits of his father, paintings of trees, streets, houses…most subjects were common acquaintances that suggest the roots of the artist. The artist majorly made use of oil paint to create abstract works; stylistically, inevitably forming thick layers of paint on the works.

霍克尼聞名的藝術特色是從他突破自身舊有風格而建立的。自一九六零年代,霍克尼轉用塑膠彩而少用油彩,再加上到異地旅遊所受到的感官衝擊,霍克尼大受啟發。他慢慢開始融合抽象表現主義 — 提倡謹慎用色代替過於抽象隨意;以及形式主義 — 強調物質本體而非其意義。異於油彩的是塑膠彩解決了前者顏料凝固堆疊的問題,為霍克尼的作品添上清新的氣象。

The beginning of Hockney’s established style, however, started as he broke through from his older works. The artist turned to acrylic paint in the 1960s, on top of receiving impelling inspirations of the foreign lands. Hockney’s works then infused Abstract Expressionism, proposing a more calculated use of colours; and Formalism which emphasizes more on the pure form of art. Different from oil paint, acrylic paints removed the thick layers of paint on artworks, giving a refreshed visual aesthetic in Hockney’s pieces.

大衛·霍克尼,《藝術家肖像(泳池與兩個人像)》(1972)。 塑膠彩畫布,210 x 300 cm。
David Hockney, Portrait of an Artist (Pool With Two Figures) (1972). Acrylic paint on canvas. 210 x 300 cm.
大衛·霍克尼,《跳水者》。1972年慕尼黑奧運會海報 (1972)。
David Hockney, The Diver, 1972 Munich Olympic Games Poster (1972).

在霍克尼眾多的作品當中並不難發現,不論光身或是悉心打扮的男性身影。霍克尼不但坦然分享了創作名作《藝術家肖像(泳池與兩個人像)》的心路歷程,同樣開心見誠地公開了他同志的性傾向。這幅畫作的啟發來自他為當時的情人彼得拍下的一張裸體出水拍立得照片。此外,霍克尼也經常以浴中或池邊的裸男為題材,抒發他對愛,美,和自由的理念。這些畫作更為人們具體化了七零年代洛杉磯的「白人同志體驗」,作為該年代同志社群的代表與紀錄。


Among the many paintings of Hockney’s, it is not rare to find male figures, naked or clothed, as the subject matters. Hockney was open about the thought process of his painting Peter getting Out of Nick’s Pool as much as he was about his sexual orientation. The artist shared that the painting was inspired by a polaroid photograph he took of his then lover Peter getting out of the pool naked. Other than that, Hockney often used his paintings to portray naked men in the shower or near the pool, as a medium to express his idea of love, beauty and freedom. More importantly, the paintings provided imageries of the ‘white gay male experience’ in the 70s Los Angeles, represented and recorded the community at that era.

大衛·霍克尼,《彼得從尼克家的游泳池爬上岸》(1966)。塑膠彩畫布。 152 x 152 cm。
David Hockney, Peter getting Out of Nick’s Pool (1966). Acrylic on canvas. 152 x 152 cm.
大衛·霍克尼,《洛杉矶家庭情景》(1963)。油彩畫布。153 × 153 cm,私人系列。
David Hockney, Domestic Scene, Los Angeles (1963). Oil on canvas, 153 × 153 cm, Private collection.

縱使登上了成功的寶座,霍克尼的藝術仍在不斷改進和創新。從油畫到塑膠彩,形式主義到抽象表現主義,再修成一套獨特的個人風格;霍克尼近年再次突破界線,挑戰以科技融入藝術。只憑手指在平板上點點畫畫,已足以才華無比的霍克尼創造更多不可能。一起觀賞更多霍克尼的作品,以投入他歡樂、色彩斑斕的藝術世界。

Though working up to be a successful and renowned artist, Hockney kept evolving and innovating in his artworks. From oil to acrylic, Formalist to Abstract Expressionism, to forming his own personal distinctive style, Hockney explored technology-driven productions in recent decades. A true talent who could create masterpieces through the tabs of fingers. Check out more of his creations to be enthralled by the vivid, vibrant and cheerful artistic world!


大衛·霍克尼,以約克郡家窗外轉換的四季景色為題的數碼繪圖 (2010)。
David Hockney, digital painting of the changing seasons outside the window of his Yorkshire home (2010).

Text by Venus Ng

Cover illustration by Alan Cheung

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