中日歐 工藝交流史| History of trading witnessed by antiques at Liang Yi Museum

愛美,不是現代人的專利。人類基因裡對美和裝飾的執著,在一件件精細工藝的古董收藏品中展露無遺。

The pursuit of beautiful things in human genetics is demonstrated in exquisite antiques at Liang Yi Museum. 

兩依藏博物館的最新展覽《耀輝百寶》,是中西方古代交流史的最佳見證。除了中國和日本的古董家具之外,來自歐洲的珠寶粉盒展示了中西相互影響的藝術交流。多件珍貴的古董家具,參觀者亦鼓勵去嘗試觸摸和使用,進行互動式的體驗!

The latest exhibition “Beneath the Surface: Chinese inlay, Japanese Maki-e; and European Cloisonne Enamel” showcased artiques that witnessed the history of communication between the East and the West. Besides artique furnitures from China and Japan, there are also luxury vanities and powder boxes from Europe. Visitors are even encouraged to touch and interact with these antiques!

《耀輝百寶》一共分為三大部分,中國的百寶嵌,日本蒔繪,和歐洲琺瑯。漆藝是中國最早的傳統工藝之一,再在八世紀與佛教一同傳入日本。後來在日本加以研究,發展出獨特的技法,蒔繪。

The exhibition “Beneath the Surface” is mainly divided into three parts, the Chinese Baibaoqian, the Japanese Maki-e, and Enamelling from Europe. The techniques of using lacquer were initiated in China, and in the 8th century, it is afferented into Japan along with Buddhism. The lacquer techniques are further developed in Japan into their own set of skills and methods, as known as Maki-e. 


黃花梨嵌百寶南官帽椅一對,
十八世紀,121 x 61 x 44 公分
A Pair of Hwanghuali Inlaid Southern Official’s Armchairs,
18th Century, 121 x 61 x 44 cm

在中國,漆主要是作為黏合的介質,將不同已切割的材質鑲嵌於在已經上漆的表面上;不同顏色和材質的嵌材組合出花樣的圖案,稱之為百寶嵌。百寶嵌先是泛運用在體積較小的物品上,像是盒子,棋盤等,後來更是用於裝飾家具表面,達到更奢華時尚的效果。百寶嵌更是鑲嵌於名貴的木材上,像是紫檀,黃花梨等,展現當時貴族的奢華與對裝飾的著迷。例如十八世紀的黃花梨嵌百寶南官帽椅一對,參觀者更是可以一嘗坐上古董家具的體驗,彷彿回到了當年的美術感性。

In China, the purpose of lacquer mainly act as a medium for attachment; numerous materials of different shades and texture are incorporated onto the surface painted of lacquer, to be assembled into patterns and pictures; the variety in materials is deliberately conveyed in the name of these crafts, “Inlay Of Hundred Treasures” (Baibaoqian). It is initially incorporated on smaller items like wooden boxes and objects in daily lives, and it is also seen utilised in decorating the surfaces of furnitures, to achieve an even more luxurious and fashionable effect. 


A Tebako (Handy Box) Containing Toiletries and Travelling Writing Utensils, 18-19th century
攜帶性梳妝與書寫用具及用具箱, 18至19世紀

而在日本,他們亦發展出了一套自己的漆藝技法,蒔繪。蒔繪是利用濕漆畫出圖形,再灑上各種金屬粉末定型。後來,中國和日本的工藝品在西方國家十分流行,一些中日的工藝品更會依照西方國家的生活習慣,打造相應的,強調東方主義的出口商品。

In Japan, they also developed a set of lacquer techniques of their own, Maki-e. Maki-e is made by spreading different types of metal powder on a wet surface of lacquer. Later on, Chinese and Japanese style of decoration became in European countries, some exporting crafts would even adapt to the lifestyles of the European, along with overwhelming Easternised patterns on the surface of their crafts. 

各式書寫用具 Types of Decorative Writing Utensils

Necessaire by Cartier,
c. 1920, 3.2 x 4.5 x 10.5 cm
化妝盒(卡地亞),
約1920年,3.2 x 4.5 x 10.5公分
Compact (Gold, enamel and silver),
c. 1920, 1.5 x 6.6 cm
粉盒(金,琺瑯,銀),
約1920年,1.5 x 6.6 公分

而在歐洲國家,漆樹無法生長,所以相對使用玻璃和金屬物質的較多。多種琺瑯工藝亦隨著時間發展了起來,例如掐絲琺瑯,內填琺瑯,和彩繪琺瑯,都運用在各種裝飾品及珠寶粉盒上。在一些歐洲的琺瑯工藝品上我們還能看見一些模擬東方國家的圖案。

Yet it is unable to grow lacquer trees in European countries, instead, the techniques of Enamelling is developed. There are different types of Enamelling, including Cloisonne, Champleve, and Painted Enamel. These techniques are incorporated in decorating all sorts of crafts and powder boxes called “necessaire”. In particular European enamel crafts, we can even see the adaptation of Eastern patterns and artistic approach.


Vase, Ando Jubei (1876-1953), 20th Century, 15.2 x 15.4 cm
花瓶, 安藤重兵衛(1876年-1953年),二十世紀,15.2 x 15.4 公分

後來,琺瑯工藝更傳入了日本,稱之為「七寶」,形容掐絲琺瑯工藝色彩斑斕的顏色。日本的琺瑯工藝對掐絲的技法更多加研究,讓金絲銀絲在瓷器表面若隱若現,表現出鯉魚的生動感。另外,俄羅斯的琺瑯工藝亦自成一格,圖案多似中東地區的風格,色彩更豐富,花紋也更變化多端。

Enamelling is also afferented back into Japan known as “Shippo/ Seven Treasure”, to describe the colourfulness of enamel craft. The techniques of Enamelling bloomed in Japan, making the metal wires of gold or silver are blurred into the enamelware, to portray the vividness and shades of the image. On the other hand, Russian Enamelling also developed their own styles and skills; the patterns of Russian Enamelling resembles Middle East style of decoration, it is highly decorative with many vibrant colour, and there are also higher variation in the design of patterns. 

Plate with Imperial Warrant Khlebnikov, Khlebnikov, 1908-1917,
1.3 x Diameter 19 cm
碟, Khlebnikov,1908-1917年,
1.3 x 直徑19 公分

《耀輝百寶》

“Beneath the Surface: Chinese inlay, Japanese Maki-e; and European Cloisonne Enamel”

Date:

2020.5.19 – 

Time: 

Tuesday to Saturday 10:00 – 18:00

Venue:

香港上環荷李活道 181-199 號

181, 199 Hollywood Rd, Sheung Wan

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