盧西安·弗洛伊德:細節狂人的育成 |Lucian Freud: The Nurturing of an Obsessor to Detail

「我一直都想為我的畫作製造紛亂,這是我畫人的原因。從一開始,一直都是人為畫作帶來紛亂。即便是人類最簡單的肢體動作都在訴說故事。」- 盧西安·弗洛伊德
“I’ve always wanted to create drama in my pictures, which is why I paint people. It’s people who have brought drama to pictures from the beginning. The simplest human gestures tell stories.” – Lucian Freud

盧西安·弗洛伊德是一位在德國出生的英國畫家,他同時亦有一半的猶太血統。後來,他成為了繪圖員、肖像畫家,更被視為二十世紀最偉大的肖像畫家之一。弗洛伊德於1922年出生於德國柏林,但因二次大戰戰亂關係於1933年舉家搬回英國倫敦。在不同程度上,弗洛伊德從小就被這兩座歷史之城影響。回到英國後,弗洛伊德短暫就讀於倫敦中央藝術和工藝學校,1939年之1942年期間轉到東安格利亞繪畫學院就讀。及後,他更加入了倫敦大學金匠學院繼續修讀藝術。

Lucian Freud was a German-born British painter of half Jewish descent, later turned into a draughtsman, figurative artist and was regarded as one of the greatest 20th century portraitists. Freud was born in 1922 in the city of Berlin, but moved back to London in 1933 due to World War II warfare. In one way or the other, Freud was influenced by the two historical cities since his formative years. Back in Britain, Freud attended the Central School of Art in London briefly, then went to Cedric Morris’ East Anglian School of Painting and Drawing in Dedham from 1939 to1942. The artist eventually enrolled in Goldsmiths’ College, a part of University of London for further art studies.

就藝術風格而言,弗洛伊德初期從抽象畫作開始並常用抽象表現主義。他漸漸喜歡上肖像畫家,並成功藉此為自己贏得美名。在弗洛伊德專業生涯的起首,他的作品尺寸一般比較小,風格上則較常展示超現實主義畫風。值得一提的是早期的弗洛伊德作品往往露出德國表現主義的痕跡,可是這說法一直被畫家本人否認,只可作為一種揣測。弗洛伊德畫作的另一特點是他經常將人、動物並列,更喜歡將畫中主題形成綜合、交錯的構圖。

In terms of artistic style, Freud started with abstract painting and practised abstract expressionism often. Later, Freud found deepened interests in figurative paintings and made a name for himself as a great portraitist. At the start of his professional life, Freud’s paintings were commonly small in size, practiced surrealism and arguably, showed traces of influence from German Expressionism which was denied by Freud personally. Another characteristic of the artist’s works is that they often depicted people and animals in juxtapositions, composing formations of closeness and colligation among the subject matters. 

弗洛伊德與其他英國畫家被稱為「倫敦學派」,意旨一群同在二十世紀中聚集倫敦,致力研究形象藝術的獨立藝術家。這群志同道合的畫家剛好在抽象畫作及抽象表現主義最急速發展的時代聚首,想必在畫家之間的互相推動和倫敦在二十世紀的整個形象藝術發展中有莫大的貢獻。弗洛伊德從那時起建立的一些藝術風格,例如多變不單一的皮膚色調,都延伸到他後期較成熟的風格。此外,弗洛伊德偏好於柔和的色調,更建立了一套熟練的線條畫功,將幼細、精準的線性風格化成他標誌性的藝術元素。

Freud, alongside other British artists, were considered the “School of London”, which consisted of a loose collection of individual artists based in London at the same time, in the figurative style. The group came together during the boom years of abstract painting and abstract expressionism, imaginably contributed to and motivated each other as well as the whole of figurative art development in London in that era. Some artistic elements like the colour use of varied flesh tones were built during this era and carried through Freud’s matured style. Apart from that, Freud also adored muted colours and established a set of line works, claiming thinly painted, precise linear style as his personal artistic element.

盧西安·弗洛伊德,《男人與薊》(自畫像),1946。
油彩畫布。610 × 502 mm。
Man with a Thistle (Self-Portrait), Lucian Freud, 1946.
Oil paint on canvas. 610 × 502 mm.
盧西安·弗洛伊德,《女孩與子貓》,1947。
油彩畫布。410 × 307 × 18 mm。
Girl with a Kitten, Lucian Freud, 1947.
Oil paint on canvas. 410 × 307 × 18 mm.
盧西安·弗洛伊德,《女孩與白狗》,1950-51。
油彩畫布。 762 × 1016 mm。
Girl with a White Dog, Lucian Freud, 1950-51
Oil paint on canvas. 762 × 1016 mm.

「繪畫裡的主體都是自傳性的,它們全然是希望、記憶、感覺性和參與度的結合。」
“The subject matter is autobiographical, it’s all to do with hope and memory and sensuality and involvement, really.”

1950年代,弗洛伊德的作品已不止於幹練的肖像圖,而是超越自己,挑戰以畫呈現現實主義。弗洛伊德對於作品的心理滲透非常執著-不論是他自身,對於畫中主體,或是觀眾三方皆是。在人像寫生的過程中,他非常鍾愛觀察、研究作為主題的模特兒,經常要求他們長時間安坐並安排他們維持極度不適的姿勢。據說,這位畫家即使在繪畫作品的背景部份時也照樣要求模特兒出席,可見他高度重視與模特兒的溝通、互動以及觀察他畫中的主題人物,不管旁人覺得做法多此一舉。一次,弗洛伊德準備繪畫一幅他第一任妻子凱蒂·加曼的肖像畫,他坦言自己「會坐得異常接近然後瞪著(她),並且這過程可能令到我們二人都感到很不自在」。弗洛伊德彷彿是在享受這種不適,一種奇怪且強烈的感覺作為他藝術創作的副產品。換一個角度來看,也許正是弗洛伊德對於觀察、研究的細膩和執著,才能令他的作品呈現如此精準、確切、細緻的高水準;更成就了他成為一個在形象藝術發展中不可多得,難以替代的靈魂人物。

By the 1950s, Freud’s paintings developed beyond simply mastered portraits, but drilled into presenting realism through his paintings. He was also obsessed with psychological penetration in his works; be that for himself, the subject matters or for the audiences. In particular, he enjoyed life studies, in the process asking models to sit for extended periods while in punishing sittings. It is said that Freud would request models’ presence even when painting the background portion of the portrait, reflecting that the artist truly valued time spent interacting and studying his subjects, even during moments deemed unnecessary to most. In one instance when painting his first wife Kitty Garman, Freud revealed that he “would sit very close and stare. It could be uncomfortable for both of us”. It was almost like Freud enjoyed the discomfort, a weird yet intense sensation incidentally produced in his art-making. Perhaps it is also the closeness and seriousness of his observation that makes Freud’s works so accurate, precise, detailed; as well as facilitates Freud to become a phenomenal portraitist, crucial to figurative art and irreplaceable among the greatest of the 20th century.

在弗洛伊德的職業生涯當中,他曾被多位繆思啟發。其中為大眾刻下烙印一位可算蘇·蒂利,別名「大蘇」。蒂利不只因體型較一般繆思圓潤而比較觸目,弗洛伊德筆下的蒂利繪畫更凸顯了他一流的膚色深淺陪襯,光線與陰影的運用,還有他後期畫作中標誌性的高視點角度。

Throughout Freud’s career, he was inspired by many muses. One of whom marked the strongest impression has to be Sue Tilley, also known as “Big Sue”. Not only did Tilley’s bulkier physique stand out from the subjects of typical portrait models, the series with Tilley also casted people’s attention on Freud’s excellent handling of flesh tones, light and shadows in depicting human figures extraordinarily realistic, and the symbolic angle from a high viewpoint among his later works.

「是沒有肌肉的肉體,它因承受本來以已載有重量的物體長成了一種截然不同的質感。」
“It’s flesh without muscle and it has developed a different kind of texture through bearing such a weight-bearing thing.”

透過繪畫蒂利和其他繆思,弗洛伊德看破了藝術及社會的定型和古板的審美標準。正因弗洛伊德敢於創新和充滿創意,加上自身的熱誠和注重細節的個性才成就了他流芳百世的傳奇。

Freud saw beyond the stereotypes and set standards of beauty in art and society in painting Tilly and many other muses of his. It is the innovativeness and creativity in the artist, alongside his passion and obsession for details, that made him the legend he is.

盧西安·弗洛伊德,《睡中的福利主管》,1995。
油彩畫布。1513 × 2190 mm。
Benefits Supervisor Sleeping, Lucian Freud, 1995.
Oil paint on canvas. 1513 × 2190 mm.
盧西安·弗洛伊德,《抬腿的男人》,1992。
油彩畫布。1830 x 2285 mm。
Man with a leg up, Lucian Freud, 1992.
Oil paint on canvas. 1830 x 2285 mm.

Text by Venus Ng

Cover Illustration by Alan Cheung

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