《學不可教》:中國藝術教育的傳承 | HISTORY OF ART EDUCATION IN CHINA

在大躍進和文化大革命時期,藝術只能作為政治宣傳工具,但歷史告訴我們當中亦有藝術家嘗試在困難環境下開拓實驗空間,並為下一代的藝術教育開路。亞洲藝術文獻舉辦的展覽《學不可教》探討1950年代至2000年代中國藝術教育的轉變,旨在探索藝術家在不同年代的求學歷程,並就他們所學如何影響日後的傳承,提供解讀脈絡。

The exhibition “Learning What Can’t Be Taught” presented by Asia Art Archive reflects on changes in art education in China from the 1950s to the 2000s. The exhibition explores how Chinese artists across generations have learnt in and outside of classrooms, and proposes lines of continuity among these artists. We ask: what guidance did they receive from their teachers, and how did this, in turn, influence the way they taught art? 

Installation view of Learning What Can’t Be Taught, AAA Library, 2021. Photo: Kitmin Lee.

展覽聚焦於六位藝術家的經歷,他們都曾於浙江美術學院就讀或任教,是該校來自三個年代的師生。該學院於1928年成立,可算是現代中國最早的一所美術學院,現名為中國美術學院。展覽包括罕見的藝術品和文獻資料,以及參展藝術家,即鄭勝天、金一德、張培力、耿建翌、陸揚和蔣竹韵的訪問片段。

The exhibition focuses on six artists from three generations who were each other’s teachers and students at the Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts in Hangzhou. The school, now called China Academy of Art, was established in 1928 as the first art academy in the country. On display are rarely seen artworks, archival materials, and video interviews with Zheng Shengtian, Jin Yide, Zhang Peili, Geng Jianyi, Lu Yang, and Jiang Zhuyun.

Installation view of Learning What Can’t Be Taught, AAA Library, 2021. Photo: Kitmin Lee.

在文化大革命後當年活躍於運動中有不少浙江美術學院的畢業生,包括張培力和耿建翌。張、耿二人於1984年和1985年先後從浙江美院畢業,他們在老師鼓勵下,嘗試挑戰社會現實主義藝術訓練的界線,創作出的作品卻被保守派批評為「太著重個人主義」。

The Zhejiang Academy is renowned for the number of graduates who went on to become leading artists in the landmark Avant-Garde Movement of 1985 and 1986, which emerged after the Cultural Revolution. These artists include Zhang Peili and Geng Jianyi, who respectively graduated from the Zhejiang Academy in 1984 and 1985. Zhang and Geng tested the limits of their training in Socialist Realism, creating works that were criticised for having “too much emphasis on individualism.”

Installation view of Learning What Can’t Be Taught, AAA Library, 2021. Photo: Kitmin Lee.

張培力和耿建翌的老師當中,要數金一德和鄭勝天最具影響力。他們於1950年代修讀藝術,當時中國藝術教育深受蘇聯影響。1960年代初中蘇決裂,一些中國藝術家在東歐及拉丁美洲藝術中尋找新靈感。然而,藝術教育只經歷短暫的自由。在大躍進和文化大革命中,藝術只能作為政治宣傳工具。1976年文革結束,在極端政治運動後幸存的藝術家,即成為新時期革新藝術教育的主導力量。金、鄭二人即屬此輩人物中的翹楚。 

The sense of individualism was partly made possible with the ethos embodied by two of the most influential artist-teachers, Zheng Shengtian and Jin Yide, who had studied at the Academy in the 1950s, when China’s art education was heavily influenced by the Soviet system. After China’s split with the Soviet Union in 1960, many artists sought inspiration from Eastern Europe and Latin America. However, freedom in art education was short-lived. Following the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution, art became instrumentalised by politics. Those who survived the campaigns became the main driving force for reforming art education.

Installation view of Learning What Can’t Be Taught, AAA Library, 2021. Photo: Kitmin Lee.

步入千禧年代,中國受惠於全球化,經濟飛快增長,繼而帶動了社會轉型,大學教育亦相應擴張。中國藝術學院的新媒體藝術系於年創立,成為塑造當代藝術教育的先驅。張培力為該系系主任,而耿建翌為學系中傑出的藝術教育家。經過七年的運作,學系畢業生超過人,包括活躍於當今藝壇的藝術家陸揚及蔣竹韻。 

In the 2000s, China’s economy grew significantly with the impact of globalisation, and university education expanded. Founded in 2003 at the China Academy of Art, the New Media Art Department became a pioneer in formalising contemporary art education. Zhang Peili served as the head of department, and Geng Jianyi was among the outstanding professors. At the end of the seven years of operation, the department had more than 300 graduates—including Lu Yang and Jiang Zhuyun, who are two of the most prominent artists of their generation.

Installation view of Learning What Can’t Be Taught, AAA Library, 2021. Photo: Kitmin Lee.

《學不可教》為中國藝術教育史增補缺漏,在教學法層面追蹤六位藝術家之間的傳承脈絡。縱然浙江美術學院提倡創新多元,自年代起啟發不同世代的藝術家,但其行政及教育政策自年代起遭受極端政治運動主導。展覽探索六位藝術家如何在困難環境下開拓實驗空間,他們的創作風格和方法縱然迥異,但此展覽透視出教育背景如何揭示藝術態度的傳承,及在常規中國藝術史論述中展現複雜面向。 

Learning What Can’t Be Taught contributes to a history of art education in China and traces the relationships between these six artists within a pedagogical context. While the Zhejiang Academy of Fine Arts promoted diversity and artistic innovation, inspiring generations of artists since the 1930s, its administration and education policies have also been dominated by the Communist Party since the 1950s. This exhibition explores how these six artists were able to carve out space for experimentation for themselves and for others. While they each work with different styles and methods, this project proposes that educational backgrounds can reveal lineages of artistic attitudes, while also complicating conventional narratives about art history in China.

《學不可教》Learning What Can’t Be Taught​
Date: 2020.12.17 – 2021.6.26​
*Time: 10:00 – 18:00​
Venue: 亞洲藝術文獻庫圖書館 AAA Library, Asia Art Archive​
香港上環荷李活道233號荷李活商業中心11樓​
11/F Hollywood Centre, 233 Hollywood Road, Sheung Wan, Hong Kong¥​

*因應新型冠狀病毒的情況,展覽由2021年2月上旬起以預約方式開放,需透過連結聯繫預約參觀。AAA Library and the exhibition Learning What Can’t Be Taught are now open by appointment. Please select your preferred visiting time slot via the link below.​
http://bit.ly/371XF15

圖片由藝術家與Asia Art Archive提供​
Courtesy of the artists and Asia Art Archive

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